Alexander L. Ivliev
Commentary on Historical Part of Chapters of Ancient and Medieval Epochs in A.P. Okladnikov’s Book “Remote Past of Primorye”
This paper presents line-by-line commentaries on the historical part of A.P. Okladnikov’s book “Remote Past of Primorye” (1959). This book was the first in national historiography historical and archaeological essay, which had given all-embracing picture of the territory’s history from the most ancient time till late Middle Age. It was a reference book for several generations of archaeologists. In spite of the fact that more than 60 years have passed since the moment of its publishing, the book still attracts attention both of researchers and of amateur historians. However, being written on base of the knowledge of the mid of last century this book has some points and simply mistakes that do not correspond to the facts. So long as these points from time to time appear in modern works, commenting of “Remote Past of Primorye” is still of some urgency. This work is done in this paper.
Keywords: Primorye Territory, history of ancient and medieval epochs, Far East, commentary, A.P. Okladnikov, Mohe, Bohai state, Jurchen, Jin Empire.
Irina V. Belova
Elena V. Sidorenko
Sinegayskaya Culture of the Paleometal Epoch of Primorye: the Main Problems of Study
This paper is devoted to one of the important problems in the study of the early Paleometal of Primorye — the Sinegayskaya culture proposed by D.L. Brodyansky in the 70s of the last century. Since its inception, the concept of Sinegayskaya culture has been criticized several times. To this date, the issue of its status, as well as the number of monuments included in the culture, has not been resolved. The paper examines in detail the historiographic problems of studying Sinegayskaya culture, gives a description of the source base, in particular, the reference cultural site — the settlement of Siniy Gai A. The authors conclude that the available data on the materials of Siniy Gai in Brodyansky’s publications is not informative enough to determine the characteristic features of culture. In this regard, it is proposed to temporarily reserve the concept of “Sinegayskaya culture” until the emergence of reliable complexes. Until then, use the concepts of “sites of the Chernyatino-2 type”, “sites of the Harinskaya type”, etc.
Keywords: Sinegayskaya culture, Paleometal epoch, Bronze Age, Western Primorye, historiography, source study.
Nadezhda G. Artem’yeva
The History of Studying of the Sites of the Jurchen Culture in the Far East of Russia: Results and Prospects
The article is devoted to the history of studying the sites of the Jurchen culture in the Far East of Russia, the study of which has been conducted for more than a hundred years. In chronological order, information is provided on the stages of the study of the Jurchen according to written and archaeological sources. Due to the low information content of written sources on the history of the Russian Far East, the main emphasis has always been on archaeological research. They were the main basis for the study. Research on archaeological sites of the Jurchen culture began at the end of the 19 century. Greater attention has always been given to research in Primorye. Having highlighted the characteristic features of mountain settlements in this geographical area, a tendency has appeared to perceive these sites and the material obtained from them as the remnants of the Jurchen culture. Any deviations from this standard related to local culture options. The new term “Amur Chzhurzheni” was applied to the medieval sites of the Amur Region. Data on the periodization of medieval sites are given. Recent achievements in media studies are shown. The results of the study of Jurchen studies in the territory of Primorye are summed up and the prospects for further research of medieval cultures in the Asia-Pacific region are outlined.
Keywords: Jurchen, Jin Empire, state of East Xia, Far East, medieval sites, walled towns, settlements, burial grounds.
Natalya A. Dorofeeva
Nikolay A. Kluyev
Quivers in the Neolithic Dwellings of the Vodopadnoye-7 Site (Primorye)
The article is devoted to describing of retouched arrowheads complexes found in the lower part of Neolithic dwelling-pit filling at Vodopadnoye-7 site. The specifics of the arrowheads deposition in the layer let us suggest they were stored in a quiver-like container. The results of morphological and typological analysis of the arrowheads from two quivers, as well as comparative analysis of them from samples found at the site beyond the complexes are presented in the article. Similarities and differences between the arrowheads set in both quivers were identified, preferences in raw material use were defined. Earlier at the territory of Far East and Siberia quivers were found in burial or ritual complexes only, but in dwellings “quivers” were found for the first time in Primorsky region. The finding let us estimate the contents and specifics of hunting equipment used by the Neolithic population of the region.
Keywords: Primorye, Vodopadnoye-7 site, Late Neolithic, Zaisanovka culture group, retouched arrowheads, hunting equipment, quivers.
Alexander A. Orekhov
Ceramic from dwelling of Ancient Bering Culture on Kivak Settlement (Chukotka Peninsula)
This paper is devoted to the problems of studying the ancient Eskimos Ancient Bering culture. Despite the almost century-long history of research, some aspects of the life of this people still remain poorly understood. The author notes that along with an active study of burial grounds, little attention was paid to dwelling complexes. The aim of this work is to introduce into the scientific circulation new materials of the Ancient Bering culture. The paper describes and analyzes the ceramic complex from the dwelling of the settlement of Kivak, located on the coast of the Chukotka Peninsula. For the production of pottery, the simplest methods were used to making the molding mass of clay, the shaping of vessels and ornamentation. Ceramic technology matches the climate and local resources of the settlement. The author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to further study dwelling complexes and equipment necessary for the reconstruction of everyday life and the economy of ancient Eskimos settlements.
Keywords: Chukotka Peninsula, ancient Eskimos Ancient Bering culture, ceramic, ornament, ecological and economic system.
Ol’ga L. Moreva
Natal’ya A. Dorofeeva
A Complex of Early Paleo-Metal Epoch at the Cherepakha-13 Site in Southern Primorye
Paleo-Metal Age is still a “terra incognita” in Archaeology of Primorsky Region. Different complexes and cultures belong to the time span between the Late Neolithic and Krounovskaya Culture are identified by researchers. A complex of Early Paleo-Metal Age found at the multilayer site Cherepakha-13 situated at the apex of Ussuriisky Gulf is introduced in this article. There are four dwelling pits, as well as some part of earthenware and stone tools are deemed to pertain to this stage of settlement and the complex according to the morphological features. The dwelling pits are situated in a flat line and have the similar size and shape. Some signs of syncretism are traced in the earthenware of the complex, upon which a conclusion was drawn on the probable ways of the complex formation. A composition of two complexes: Northern and Central is also traced in the set of stone tools.
Keywords: Primorsky Region, Cherepakha-13, Early Paleo-Metal Age, Lidovskaya Culture, Yankovskaya Culture, dwellings, earthenware, polished daggers.
Irina S. Zhushchikhovskaya
On the New Category of Glazed Ceramic Ware from Jurchen Sites of Primorye Region
The article is considering certain category of ceramic wares recently discovered at Jurchen sites of Primorye region XII—XIII centuries — large-sized glazed containers. The set of methods, in particularly, SEM and EDS analyses, used in this study is purposed to the determination of technical and technological traits of the ceramics. The study produced some information on the main characteristics of vessels’ morphology and shaping technique, ceramics pastes receipts, glazes composition, firing quality and technological regimes of firing. Certainly, the considered ceramics were the products of professional craft, and, probably, were made in different workshops. The subject of special interest for further investigations is the recognizing of provenance, or production place, of large-sized glazed ware from some Jurchen sites of Primorye. By its basic features this ware is similar to large-sized glazed containers known widely in East and South-East Asia beginning from early Medieval past.
Keywords: natural sciences methods, ceramics pastes receipts, glazes chemical composition, firing technique and technology, professional craft production.
Alexander L. Ivliev
Elena V. Astashenkova
Evgeniy Yu. Nikitin
Collection of Bronze Items from the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography (FEFU Education and Research Museum, Vladivostok)
The article deals with description of the bronze items collection received in 2011 by the FEFU Education and Research Museum (Vladivostok). The collection consists of 17 bronze objects including 13 mirrors, 3 coin-shaped amulets and 1 seal. There is no information about the place and circumstances of the finding of these artifacts. However, analysis of decor, style and iconography of these items, and also cast and engraved inscriptions on some mirrors and at the seal, indicate that they belong to different chronological periods. Most of bronze mirrors date from the XII—XIII centuries. One mirror has a typical Liao epoch (907—1125) ornament. Another one previously attributed by the authors to the XVI—XIX centuries. Two coin-shaped amulets were cast, most likely in the Jurchen time. Amulets with through decor were common in the Far East region in the XIII—XVII centuries. The seal is an unique artifact of the East Xia period (XIII century).
Keywords: Jin Empire(1115—1234), Eastern Xia State (1215—1233), Jurchen, bronze mirrors, bronze seal, coin-shaped amulet.
Evgeniya I. Gel’man
Aleksandr L. Ivliev
Vladislav I. Boldin
The Fortifications of the Kraskinsky Walled Town
The article is devoted to the results of research on fortifications of the Kraskinsky walled town. This town was center of Yanchou district which was part of the region under the control of the Eastern capital of Bohai state (698—926). The walled town was a seaport, as well as a trade and craft center. Long-term systematic excavations are underway at the site, thanks to which a variety of materials have been obtained that make it possible to draw preliminary conclusions about the level of Bohai walled town planning. All the main dimensional and qualitative characteristics and the degree of preservation of the medieval town were analyzed. Main features of the structure of the town walls of the site in its different parts are considered. The sequence of construction of walls, protective structures of gate and towers, as well as their repair is established. Using stone materials in the construction of town walls were studied. The stages of the town wall construction are previously correlated with the chronology of the existence of the Kraskinsky walled town.
Keywords: Bohai state, Kraskinsky walled town, fortification, gates, towers, chronology.
Vladislav I. Boldin
Vladimir E. Shavkunov
The Typology of Arrowheads of Kraskinskoe Walled Town
The Kraskinskoe settlement is the largest site of Bohai on the territory of Primorsky region. It is assumed that it was the center of Yanzhou district. During the excavations on it a large collection of iron arrowheads was extracted. The article gives their typology and reveals analogies in cultures close in time and territory. Based on the analysis of the collected data, conclusions are drawn. 1) The revealed analogies allow to assume rather long time of existence of Kraskinskoe settlement, presumably from VIII and to XI, probably even, to XII century. 2) Close contacts (economic, cultural or military) between Bohai and the Mokhe living to the northeast of them are traced. 3) On Kraskinskoe settlement worked blacksmiths, which has been going their way in attempts to create improved forms arrowheads.
Keywords: Primorsky Krai, Bohai, the Kraskinskoe settlement, Mohe, arrowheads.
Tat’yana A. Vasil’eva
Location of Residential Blocks of the Ekaterinovskoe Walled Town (Primorsky Krai)
The article considers the internal planigraphy of the Ekaterinovskoe ancient town — one of the monuments of the Jurchen empire of East Xia (XIII century). The Jurchen cities were built according to strictly developed plans, which were based on the experience of their predecessors and neighbors. Rules were in force throughout the empire of the Jurchen. The main objects of development were residential, economic, administrative and public buildings. They were located in designated areas of the city. The terrain was taken into account in this case. The location of residential blocks was determined in advance. Considering the location of the investigated dwellings of the Ekaterinovskoe walled town and their design features, we can conclude about the established traditions of housing construction among the Jurchen of Primorye. There were strict standards for the construction of dwellings in certain areas, which were in line with prevailing standards and the position held by the owner of the estate. At the same time, nearby dwellings in the blocks of ordinary townspeople could differ in size and design features.
Keywords: Primorye, Eastern Xia state, Jurchen, Ekaterinovskoe walled town, inner city layout, dwellings, streets.
Stanislav D. Prokopets
Evgeniy Yu. Shapovalov
Dmitriy M. Belov
Results of Protected Archaeological Works Carried out by the Historical and Cultural Expertise Sector In 2019
The paper presents new archaeological sites found during the salvage archaeological activities Sector of historical-cultural expertise of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS. The sites are located on the territory of Artemovsky city district and Shkotovsky municipal district of Primorsky Krai. Exploratory earthworks were carried out on the territory of the archaeological sites, during which dating archaeological material was collected. Shevelevka-4 refers to small temporary sites of the Neolithic era. Oleniy-6 is a small settlement of the paleometallic era with housing depressions located at the tip of the cape. Petrovka-13 is a multi-layered archaeological site that was settled in the Neolithic, early iron age, as well as by Korean settlers at the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century.
Keywords: archaeology of Primorsky Krai, salvage archaeological works, Neolithic, Early Iron Age, Paleometal, ethnography, Petrovka-13 site, Shevelevka-4 site, Oleniy-6 site.