The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS) is the unique scientific humanities institute in the Far East of Russia, in region which covers about 36 percent of the vast territory of Russia. It is no exaggeration to say that the Institute plays a significant and systemically important role in sociopolitical, cultural and intellectual life of the region.
The Institute is a complex and multidisciplinary research institution and conducts fundamental studies in history, archaeology, anthropology, ethnology, Asian and regional studies, philology and international relations. In the last 50 years, exceptional results have been achieved in the following fields of study: prehistorian archaeology, medieval Far Eastern civilizations (Bohai state, Jurchen empire), the history of the Russian Far Eastern region, anthropology and ethnology, multinational and interethnic relations, the history of neighbouring Asian states, etc.
Among the most important results of the Institute are the fundamental “History of the Russian Far East” in seven volumes, multivolume series of the proceedings “History and Culture of the Indigenous Peoples of the Far East” and “History of North-East China” in five volumes. Many of these and other books were translated in China, South Korea, and Japan. The unique artifacts which were displayed at leading museums of East Asia (Japan, South Korea) are kept in the collections of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Institute.
Due to its geographical position, the Institute plays a major role in science diplomacy and foreign policy contributing to the development of scientific, cultural and humanitarian ties in the Asia-Pacific Region. The Institute interacts on a long-term basis with scientific organizations in China, Japan, South Korea, Mongolia, other Asian countries, the USA, Australia, and European Union. International conferences and seminars are held at the Institute. Foreign researchers from the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region do long-term trainings and internships at the Institute. The researchers of the Institute monitor the current internal political and geopolitical situation in the neighbouring countries: North Korea, South Korea and North-East China (over 120 million people live there). In the highly tensioned situation nowadays, these studies are particularly significant.
The Institute is the largest organizer of international archaeological expeditions in the Far East. For over 20 years, our archaeologists have conducted annual international expeditions involving a lot of Russian and foreign students as well as post-graduate students into research. The international archaeological expedition in Mongolia has worked for almost the same period, and its bright discoveries continue international traditions of Mongolian studies.
Over the years, many prominent scientists have worked at the Institute and contributed greatly to historical studies. It is impossible to name all of them. The pioneers and founders of the main research areas of the Institute were such outstanding researchers as the creator of Institute historian A.I. Krushanov, leader of prehistorical archaeology Zh.V. Andreeva, the founder of medieval archaeology E.V. Shavkunov, the founder of scientific archaeology V.D. Len’kov, ethnologists Yu.A. Sem and N.V. Kocheshkov, linguists L.I. Sem, N.B. Kile, G.A. Otaina, orientalists F.V. Solov’yev, V.G. Shcheben’kov, historians A.T. Mandrik, B.I. Mukhachev, A.P. Derevyanko, I.G. Stryuchenko and others.
Nowadays the Institute consists of highly qualified professionals: two Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 20 Professors and more than 50 PhDs.
The 30th volume of “Proceedings of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology FEB RAS” is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Institute. It includes the survey papers devoted to the history of the Institute, particular scientific fields and contribution of the most prominent researchers to science. We hope that these papers will give an idea about various aspects of the Institute during the 50-year period.
N.N. Kradin, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute
Nikolay N. Kradin
Notes on the Past, Present, and Future of Institute
This article examines the history of the formation and development of the main research institute in the Russian Far East in Humanities — the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS. The establishment of the institute was preceded by the creation of the Department of History, Archaeology and Ethnography at the Far Eastern Scientific Center. In 1971, an institute was created on the foundation of this Department. The dynamics of the development of the institute, main directions, personnel scholars, and the importance of the institute in the life of the region are shown. These changes can be traced on the background of general historical processes, changes in Russian science, as well as the author’s personal feelings.
Keywords: Russian Far East, history, historiography, history of science.
Victor L. Larin
Oriental Studies in the Institute of History: Constructing the Own Way
The article is devoted to the half-century history of oriental studies at the Institute of History, FEB RAS. The author concentrates on research related to the study of the countries and peoples of East Asia in the XVII—XXI centuries, economic, political and humanitarian relations of Russia with them, as well as the role, place and significance of the eastern regions of Russia in Pacific Asia. The article describes the prehistory of academic oriental studies in Vladivostok, starting from the 30s of the twentieth century, identifies three stages of its development at the Institute of History: 70—80s of the twentieth century, 1991—2005 and 2016—2020, describes their characteristic features, main directions and results. The most significant achievements were obtained, according to the author of the article, in the study of Northeastern China history, border relations of the Russian Far East, Russian emigration in China and Asian migrants in the Amur and Primorye regions. A number of stories from the past and present of Japan, Korea, and the countries of Southeast Asia have also been studied, conceptual provisions have been developed on general trends and features of international relations in Northeast Asia and the North Pacific in the late 19th — early 21st centuries, as well as on the role of and Russia’s place in these processes.
Keywords: Institute of History, Far East, Northeast Asia, oriental studies, international relations.
Lyudmila I. Gallyamova
Academician Andrey Ivanovich Krushanov — Teacher, Scientist, Organizer of Science
The article is dedicated to the outstanding scientist — academician A.I. Krushanov, whose 100th anniversary will be held on June 1, 2021. Attention is focused on the fact that Andrey Ivanovich Krushanov was one of the most prominent figures of the far Eastern academic science of the Soviet times, which, of course, gives good reasons for studying his biography and activities. A place is given to consideration of the initial pages of his life: working youth, service in the army, participation in the defeat of the Kwantung Japanese group in Manchuria, return to peaceful labor, the analysis of which shows quite a typical biography for that Soviet time. However, A.I. Krushanov’s character traits were unusual: an irrepressible thirst for knowledge, great hard work, constant work on oneself, diversity of interests and purposefulness. Having an outstanding research talent and pronounced leadership qualities, Andrey Ivanovich has developed into a major scientist, an outstanding organizer, a visionary, strategically thinking leader who has become an international specialist. Having an outstanding research talent and pronounced leadership qualities, Andrey Ivanovich has developed into a major scientist, an outstanding organizer, a visionary, strategically thinking leader who has become an international specialist, his outstanding contribution to the development of historical science, Humanities education, and the formation of highly qualified personnel potential in the Russian Far East is highly appreciated.
Keywords: Russia, Far East, academician A.I. Krushanov, science, education, Humanities, training, research, scientific works.
Nikolay A. Klyuev
Zhanna Vasil’evna Andreeva and Her Role in the Formation and Development of the Institute
The paper describes creative development of noted Far-Eastern archaeologist — Zh.V. Andreeva. She was one of leading researchers in the field of archaeology of primitive society of Primorye Region in the second half of XX — beginning of XXI с. and also one of the founders of this direction in the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East. Her scientific heritage is huge. Dozens of new archaeological objects were found by her, she made excavation of such well-known archaeological sites as Siniye Skaly, Malaya Podushechka, Chapayevo, Anuchino-1 et al. Zh.V. Andreeva was the first specialist in Primorye, who had defended doctoral degree dissertation on archaeology. In her works she concerned wide range of actual problems starting from the question of periodization of archaeological sites ending with distinguishing new cultures in Iron Age.
Keywords: history of archaeology of Primorye Region, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, Zh.V. Andreeva, scientific heritage.
Nikolay A. Klyuev
Alexandr L. Ivliev
Ernst Vladimirovich Shavkunov — Discoverer of the Medieval Archaeology of Southern Part of Russian Far East
The paper describes creative development of E.V. Shavkunov (1930—2001) — the leading specialist in the sphere of medieval archaeology of the Far East of Russia in second half of XX с. An establishment of this area of archaeology in the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of Peoples of the Far East is connected with his name. For a long time he headed Sector of archaeology of medieval states in the Institute, and had brought up quite a group of pupils. E.V. Shavkunov has a number of scientific discoveries and achievements in medieval archaeology of the region. They are: discovery and excavation of the first Bohai sites in Primorye Territory; determination of criteria for distinguishing Bohai sites from Jurchen ones; revelation of cultural relations of Bohai people and Jurchen with Turkish and Central Asian world; discovery of netsuke art of Jurchen at al. He proposed a concept of the origin Tungus peoples, and of polyethnical composition of the population of the south part of Russian Far East in ancient and medieval epochs. Excavation of Shaiginskoye ancient town in Primorye by E.V. Shavkunov had become well-known in scientific world. The authors of the paper point out that many works written by E.V. Shavkunov have preserved their actuality up to nowadays.
Keywords: history of the archaeology of Far East of Russia, E.V. Shavkunov, scientific heritage, medieval archaeology of Primorye Territory.
Olga V. Dyakova
Vladimir E. Shavkunov
Vitaliy Dmitrievich Len’kov: person, scientist, colleague
The article is devoted to Vitaliy Dmitrievich Len’kov — the founder of the study of ancient and medieval metallurgy in Primorye, the organizer and permanent head of the first Laboratory of Physical and Technical Research Methods in the archeology of the Far East. During 30 years of work at the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, V.D. Len’kov rose from senior laboratory assistant to deputy director of the Institute. He annually worked in archaeological expeditions in Primorye, exploring the mountain fortifications of the Jurchen Shaiginsky, Ekaterinovsky, Lazovsky, Kishenevsky, Plahotniucinsky, Rocky settlements, conducted research of the Vitus Bering camp on the Commander Islands, studied the archaeological sites of Baikal-Amur Mainline. The main theme in archaeology was the ancient and medieval metallurgy of the Jurchens. Being the permanent head of the Laboratory of Physical and Technical Methods of Research, Vitaliy Dmitrievich managed to create a serious instrument base that allowed performing the entire range of necessary analyses. A great achievement of V.D. Len’kov should be considered his cooperation with the leading geologists of Primorye and the use of physical and technical research methods in working with archaeological materials. This made it possible to identify ancient and medieval iron mining sites of the Bohai and Jurchen peoples in Primorye. In life, Vitaliy Dmitrievich was a friendly, cheerful person, could tell an anecdote, including from his own life, play the accordion or organize volleyball battles.
Keywords: Vitaliy Dmitrievich Len’kov, archaeology, expeditions, Primorye, metallurgy, Jurchen.
Vadim A. Turaev1
Yuriy Aleksandrovich Sem — Organizer of Ethnographic Research in the Far East
The article examines the activities of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Yu.A. Sem (1926—1995) on the organization of ethnographic research at the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS. For almost 25 years Yu.A. Sem was associated with this scientific institution, 17 of which he headed ethnographic research in the Far East. In his person, Far Eastern ethnography received a versatile researcher and energetic organizer. Deep knowledge and scientific experience of Yu.A. Sem gave a powerful impetus to the development of ethnographic research in the Far East, made it possible to educate scientific personnel, create a specialized ethnographic subdivision, within which oriental and philological studies developed for a long time, East Slavic folklore studies developed, and a Far Eastern ethnographic school emerged. The talent of the ethnographer Yu.A. Sem was especially evident during his many expeditions. For more than 20 years, he led the Far Eastern Ethnographic and Philological Expedition. Field research was carried out in Primorye, in the Khabarovsk Territory, on Sakhalin, Kamchatka, in the Magadan Region. The richest materials on ethnography and folklore of the Nanais, Ulchi, Oroks, Nivkhs, Ainu, Evens were collected and introduced into scientific circulation. Yu.A. Sem is rightfully considered the founder of the multivolume historical and ethnographic series “History and Culture of the Peoples of the Far East”, the preparation of which has become the main direction of the activity of Far Eastern ethnographers for many years to come. Yu.A. Sem is an author of more than 350 scientific works — books, articles, reviews, reviews, publications of folklore texts. Scientific heritage of Yu.A. Sem has not lost its significance at the present time, his works continue to be published today.
Keywords: Yu.A. Sem, small indigenous peoples, ethnographic research.
Anatoly F. Startsev
Nikolay Vladimirovich Kocheshkov: talented ethnographer, art critic, teacher
The article examines the scientific activity of Nikolai Vladimirovich Kocheshkov — a person with extraordinary creative, scientific and pedagogical abilities. Over the years of his scientific activity, N.V. Kocheshkov published about 450 scientific works on various problems of ethnography, art, Mongolian studies, the history of international relations in the Far East and Central Asia in Russian, English, Mongolian, Buryat, Kalmyk, Chinese, Japanese and other languages. To help the universities of the Far East, scientists have published 10 textbooks on various problems of ethnography, history and culture of the peoples of the Far East region. Several graduate students defended their Ph.D. theses under his supervision. In 1996 N.V. Kocheshkov received the title of professor for his active pedagogical activity, and in 1999 he was awarded the honorary title “Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation”. Such people are usually called “jack of all trades”, they amaze others and never cease to amaze them. Looking at the life of such a person, you involuntarily wonder whether a talented person is really talented in everything? This philosophical expression, which belonged to the German writer Lion Feuchtwanger, more precisely sounds like this: “A talented man is talented in all areas”. It is this expression that unmistakably refers to the life and work of Nikolai Vladimirovich Kocheshkov, who died untimely at the age of 75.
Keywords: N.V. Kocheshkov, scientist, teacher, talented person, historian, ethnographer, art critic, peoples of the North.
Galina A. Tkacheva
Anatoliy Timofeevich Mandrik: “Don’t Think yourself a Great Man by Shadow Value at Sunset”
Based on documents from the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, FEB RAS and materials from personal archives, the life and creative path of A.T. Mandrik, a well-known Far Eastern historian, recognized in both domestic and foreign scientific circles. It was revealed that he published more than 100 scientific papers, including 2 individual monographs and 9 chapters in collective works, 90 large articles (8 published abroad), edited about 40 individual works and collections, read more than 40 reports at scientific conferences, including 15 international, 14 Ph.D. theses were defended under his supervision. The article defines the contribution of the scientist as an organizer and executor to the development of the problems of modernization of the Far Eastern region in the late 19th — first half of the 20th centuries within the framework of new explanatory schemes for the civilizational development of Russia and the stages of building a socialist society in the USSR, the role of Academician Andreiy Ivanovich Krushanov in its fate. Scientific achievements of A.T. Mandrik and his merits were repeatedly noted with awards, including the Order of the Badge of Honor (1983), medals for Valiant Labor (1970) and Veteran of Labor (1988), numerous certificates of honor and other distinctions. In 1996, under the Program of targeted support of scientists, he was awarded the Grant of the Governor of the Primorsky Territory “For scientific achievements for the benefit of the social and economic development of Primorye”, in 2008 he became a laureate of the FEB RAS prize named after outstanding scientists of the Russian Far East — academician A.I. Krushanov.
Keywords: Far Eastern scientist, A.T. Mandrik, life path, scientific achievements, research historiography.
Lyudmila M. Medvedeva
An Inquisitive Researcher and a Talented Organizer: in Memory of Alexey Panteleevich Derevyanko
The article is dedicated to the memory of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Alexey Panteleevich Derevyanko, who worked for more than thirty years at the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS. It contains brief biographical data of the scientist, characteristics of his personal qualities. The main results of his work on the history of the Russian Far East are presented: publications, participation in scientific conferences, editorial work. The results of the development of promising scientific directions initiated by A.P. Derevyanko. The stages of formation of the collective of the Sector of Economic and Population of the Far East of the Institute of History under the leadership of A.P. Derevyanko and the realization of the scientific potential of his employees in the study of the problems of industrial and transport development of the Far East, the history of the peasantry, social policy, ethnocultural characteristics and problems of professional training of the population in the region. The role of A.P. Derevyanko in expanding and maintaining creative contacts with the teams of many scientific and educational institutions. The achievements in the field of training scientific personnel are indicated: under the leadership of A.P. Derevyanko specialists from scientific and educational institutions of the region defended 17 candidate and doctoral dissertations; he was active on the dissertation defense councils. The article assesses the contribution of A.P. Derevyanko in the study of the socio-economic history of the Russian Far East as an outstanding historian of the Far East and an outstanding organizer of science, who left a mark not only in the activities of the Institute of History, but also in Russian historical science.
Keywords: Doctor of Historical Sciences Alexey Panteleevich Derevyanko, science of the Far East, employees of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS.
Galina V. Kondratenko
Fedor Vladimirovich Solovyov as the Custodian of Russian Sinology Traditions and the Founder of a New School
The article analyzes the creative path of the Soviet Sinologist F.V. Solovyov. A comprehensive analysis of the three main works of the scientist allowed not only to identify the main themes in his work, but also to trace the complex context of research work. The main topics in Solovyov’s research were the toponymy of the Primorsky Territory and the Chinese otkhodniki in the Far East of Russia in the period 1860—1917. He believed that toponymy is the key to the history of the region and its changes in toponymy are associated with a change in the ethnic composition of the population. The study of otkhodniks offers researchers a variety of subjects — from determining the nature of colonization and the appearance in the political discourse of the region of the theme of “yellow peril”, studying the phenomenon of hunkhuzism on both sides of the border, studying the economy of the Far East and Manchuria in the period from 1860 to 1917, to analyzing the social composition of Chinese otkhodnik, and also sets a certain outline for studying the history of the aboriginal population of the Amur and Primorye and their relationship with the Russians, Chinese and Manchus. Solovyov’s works link classical and modern sinology — on the one hand, he continues the work of his teachers and researchers of the 1920s and 1930s, and on the other hand, studying the history of Northeast China is a “bridge” to the future and it is quite obvious that he succeeded to connect the traditional sinology of the late 19th — early 20th centuries and the modern research school, his work became the “missing” link that allows us to talk about the traditions of sinology in the Russian Far East.
Keywords: F.V. Solovyov, history of the Far East, colonization of Manchuria, Chinese toponymy, Chinese otkhodniki.