#31'2021

CONTENTS

Aleksander L. Ivliev

On the Results of Research of the Theme “Archaeology and History of South Part of the Far East of Russia and Contiguous Zones of Asia in Ancient and Medieval Epochs” in 2011—2020

The paper introduces main results of realization of the common theme of archaeological subdivisions of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS in 2011—2020. The researches on the theme were in wide time span from Neolithic Age to Late Medieval Epoch. Geographical limits of the research cover a vast area from Central Asia to Japan Sea with emphasis on Primorye Territory. The work on the theme resulted in obtaining new important knowledge of basic significance about historical processes in the region since early Neolithic Age till XIII—XVI cc. New archaeological sources have been published. However, many problems associated with the theme remain in the stage of preliminary research and making current hypotheses, they need accumulation of new archaeological data. It determines a necessity of further research in the field of archaeology and history of the south part of Far East of Russia in ancient and medieval epochs.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological cultures of Neolithic, Paleometal and Medieval Epochs in the south part of Far East of Russia, paleoecology, Bohai, Jin and Dong Xia states, ethnic and cultural processes, ancient pottery, ancient agriculture.

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Yuri E. Vostretsov

Paleoecological Investigations in Archaeology of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the FEB RAS

The article deals with the emergence and evolution of the paleoecological direction in the Institute of history, archaeology and ethnology of the people of the Far East (IНAE) of the FEB RAS since the late 70s of the XX century and to the present day. The ecological and organizational conditions of the emergence of a new paradigm are analyzed. The stages of development and promotion of paleoecological research are highlighted, and the characteristics and totals of each of them are given. The current implementation difficulties and research results are analyzed. The author states the formation of two directions in the archeology of the IНAE FEB RAS which are loosely connected with each other.

Keywords: paleoecology, human behavioral ecology, coastal adaptation, agricultural adaptation, Primorye, East Asia.

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Nadezhda G. Artemieva

25 Years of Work of the Primorsky Archaeological Expedition

The article is dedicated to the results of the work of the Primorsky Archaeological Expedition (PAE), which for 25 years has conducted 87 scientific expeditions to 29 sites of archaeological heritage. The main subject of the study of the expedition were medieval monuments of Primorye 12th—13th centuries of the Jurzhen era. The first research was started on the Krasnoyarovsky settlement. After 2000, the expedition expands the area of its research, beginning to study other medieval fortifications — South Ussurian, Shayginsky, Nikolaevsky, Novonezhinsky, Stogovsky, Nikolaevsky 1. Since 2011 PAE begins to study medieval monuments of a new type — religious buildings, burial grounds, postal stations, as well as fortifications of the Chosun period and Mongolian time. In addition, the expedition conducts large-scale security and rescue work on archaeological heritage sites entering the construction zone. In addition to stationary studies, the medieval towns of Primorye were constantly monitored. All the research of the expedition was carried out under the state program “Conservation of the Archaeological Heritage of the Russian Federation”.

Keywords: Jurchen, Jin Empire, Dong Xia State, Far East, medieval sites, fortifications, settlements, burial grounds, Primorsky Archaeological Expedition.

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Andrey V. Ptashinsky

On the Question of the Time and Reasons for the End of the Final Paleolithic Era in Kamchatka

In the papers the problem of the end of the Upper Paleolithic in Kamchatka in the light of geochronology is considered. The correlation of new dating of cultural layers, their inventory and ash horizons allows to confirm the validity of distinguishing Holocene Paleolithic by N.N. Dikov. By the author assumption, the strongest eruptions in the early Holocene were a decisive factor in the end of existence and sudden change of the early cultural formations of the peninsula.

Keywords: Kamchatka, Final Paleolithic, Late Pleistocene, Early Holocene, catastrophic eruption, tephrochronology, cores.

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Elena V. Sidorenko

Irina V. Belova

The Tradition of Depicting Leaves on the Bottoms of Vessels in the Ancient Cultures of Primorye Region (Correlation and Dynamics)

The paper examines the tradition of depicting leaves on the bottoms of vessels in the ancient cultures of Primorye region. The authors compiled a consolidated list of archaeological sites in the region, in the complexes of which images of leaves were recorded on the bottoms of vessels. New data are introduced into the scientific circulation, the developments of researchers on this problem are generalized, and an attempt is made to trace the evolution of the original tradition in Primorye region. An analysis of the available publications showed that images of leaves on the bottoms of vessels are quite rare and are found on sites of the Late Neolithic and the Paleometal Epoch of Primorye region. Two ways of applying images of leaves have been recorded — an imprint of real leaves and their drawing. It is noted that the emergence of this tradition is associated with the migration of the population of the Zaisanovskaya culture of the Late Neolithic to the territory of Primorye from the adjacent territories of modern China and Korea. The participation of the people of Zaisanovskaya culture in the cultural genesis of other groups of the population is substantiated. In paper separately raises the question of the appearance images of leaves on the bottoms of vessels, which is interpreted by various researchers from two positions: technological and ritual. It is noted that both points of view deserve attention. At the end of the paper, the authors conclude that the tradition of depicting leaves on the bottoms of vessels is one of the archaeological markers that unites the cultures of the Asia-Pacific region, and allows tracing migration routes and cultural ties in the period from the 3rd millennium BC to the 1st millennium BC.

Keywords: Late Neolithic, Paleometal Epoch, Zaisanovskaya culture, Yankovskaya culture, Primorye region, pottery tradition, images of leaves, ritual purpose, technology of vessel construction.

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Natalia A. Dorofeeva

Woodworking Tools of the Sites of the Final Neolithic of the Southern Primorye

Comprehensive analysis of polishing cutting tools of Southern Primorye within the chronologic range 4,000~3,500 years b.p. is given in this article. Typological classification of tools development has become one of the research tasks. The research is based upon artifacts from the Neolithic layer of Vodopadnoe-7 site, where on the ground of the two Neolithic structures a unique in its completeness set of woodworking tools (axes, adzes, chisels, chippers) has been unearthed. Specific types featuring a set of characteristic attributes have been separated on the base of comprehensive analysis and general typology of cutting tools has been developed. The typological classification of cutting tools obtained has been applied to the materials of earlier studied sites pertaining to epoch of Final Neolithic of Southern Primorye. Technological features identifying of the tools formation as well as recognizable types separation both for Vodopadnoe-7 site artifacts and generally for artifacts of all the sites of the abovenamed epoch have become the ultimate result of the research.

Keywords: Primorye, Final Neolithic, woodworking tools, typology.

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Irina S. Zhushchikhovskaya

Mumun Pottery in Korea: Some Research Aspects

The purpose of article is to present data on ceramic wares from archaeological sites of Mumun period (Bronze Age) at Korea peninsular. Research base: English language publications and the results of direct study of ceramic collections from some Mumun sites. Two main groups of pottery are considered — utilitarian (“coarse”) ware and non-utilitarian (“red-polished”) ware. These groups are differing in their technique-technological, morphological, decoration and functional patterns. They reflect differentiated character of pot-making skills and standards, and demonstrate new advanced level of ceramic wares production in the comparison with Neolithic epoch.

Keywords: Mumun period, archaeological ceramics, technological ways, pottery morphology and decoration, utilitarian wares, non-utilitarian wares.

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Vyacheslav A. Grishchenko

Pavel A. Pashentsev

Excavations of the Settlement of the Nabil Culture Askasai 7 on Northern Sakhalin

The article presents the results of a study of the Askasai 7 settlement of the 7th—4th centuries BC, related to one periodization and cultural-chronological stage of history of Sakhalin Island — the Nabil archaeological culture of the Paleometal Age. From the already published complexes of this culture, the materials of this monument are distinguished by two features: the location far from the coast, in the depths of the river valley, and the compact layout of the settlement of three pit dwellings and eight storage pits, excavation by wide area. For the first time, the results of radiocarbon dating of the complexes of this settlement are published.

Keywords: Askasai 7, settlement, pit dwellings, Nabil culture, Sakhalin Island, Paleometal Age.

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Yana E. Piskareva, Stanislav D. Prokopets, Elena V. Astashenkova, Irina V. Belova, Elena A. Sergusheva, Svetlana E. Baksheeva, Dmitry M. Belov, Evgeny Y. Shapovalov, Maxim A. Yakupov

Researches of the Steclianukha 2 Walled Ancient Town

The article presents the results obtained after the study of the object of archaeological heritage (OAH) “Steclianukha 2”, located in the Shkotovsky district of Primorsky Krai. The site occupies the top and the part of the south-western slope along the crest of the Boytsovaya hill, its surface is 2.3 hectares. As a result of the research, three stages of settlement were determined. The first one is dated back to the Early Iron Age and is represented by single finds of ceramics. The second stage belongs to the Early Middle Ages, to the mohe archaeological culture. Analysis of the distribution of the material showed that during this period there was a residential building in the western part of the site. In addition, the presence of the remains of a faintly noticeable rampart in this area can indicate that fortifications could also exist there. At the third stage, a rampart that surrounded the town on three sides was built, no signs of residential building were found. The rampart was built with regards to the terrain feature, that’s why the plan of the walled ancient town is irregular in shape. The rampart, the main and technical gates, and the inner territory were researched. The date of the last stage of settlement is still unclear. The structure of the main city gate is similar to the Sinelnikovo-1 walled ancient town, and the technical gate is peculiar to the Jurchen walled towns. At the same time, the system of fortification, represented by the rampart and the gates, looks very simple compared to the fortifications of the Jurchen mountain walled ancient towns, which had redoubts, inner cities, towers, barbettes and other additional structures.

Keywords: Primorye, archaeology, the Middle Ages, excavations, “Steclianukha 2”, walled ancient town, Mohe, Jurchen, fortification.

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Vladimir E. Shavkunov

The North-Eastern gate of Aurovskoe Walled Town

The Aurovskoe walled town is protected by a rampart made of rough stone. Three gates lead to its territory, arranged in the form of a simple gap in the rampart. The gate located in the north-eastern part of the sites was excavated. Inside the gate passage, a small sluice was built by the ancient builders. There were guards on the inside of the passageway. There was probably a wooden structure above the gate for raising and lowering the lock shields, and there was a palisade on the rampart. Only one person could pass through the gate at a time. The thoroughness with which the guards monitored and checked the people entering the city suggests the special status of the Aurovskoe walled town. It can be assumed that after the destruction of the state of Bohai, there was a residence of some famous representative of the Bohai nobility.

Keywords: Bohai, Aurovskoe walled town, the device gate, the guards, the military situation, a thorough inspection, a special status.

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Nikita E. Kushnarev

Discussion Issues and Research Problems of Pokrovskaya Culture

The article analyzes the views and positions of researchers of the Pokrovskaya culture (culture of the “Amur Jurchens”). The main concepts of the origin, development and stages of the existence of culture are characterized. Based on the study of archival materials, the dynamics of changes in the views of researchers is shown when studying archaeological material. Disagreements among researchers were reflected in terminology, dating, interpretation of artifacts and burial rites. The extensive empirical basis for the study of the Pokrovskaya culture created by them led to a long period of discussions that reached a dead end due to the emergence of new controversial issues and the lack of fundamentally new data. The heterogeneity of the stages of the existence of culture, proposed by V.E. Medvedev and Yu.M. Vasiliev, created difficult conditions for future research and interpretation.

Keywords: Eastern Amur, Pokrovskaya culture, culture of the Amur Jurchens, discussion issues, research problems.

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