Ingenious Peoples of the Far East: History and Modernity

Vladimir V. Podmaskin

The History of Studying the Culture of Sakhalin Uilta (Orocs, Orochons) (19th — 20th Centuries)

The article deals with the study of the Uilta (Oroks, Orochons) in domestic and foreign literature. Over the past time, considerable experience has been accumulated in the historical and ethnographic study of this island ethnic group. A great contribution to the study of the history, culture and life of the Uilta was made by Russian travelers, sailors, doctors, local historians, philologists, ethnographers and anthropologists. The first information about the people was obtained during the Second Kamchatka Expedition, and the culture and life of Sakhalin’s Uilta began to receive full coverage in the works of Russian researchers from the middle of the 19th century. The materials of the article also acquaint with the works of foreign authors, their views of modern economic and ethnic development. The earliest information about them is contained in Japanese and Chinese chronicles of the early 18th century. Also of great interest are the works of Japanese researchers: Sukehatsi Nagane, Sukehiro Yamamoto, Jiro Ikegami, etc. The article provides a detailed historiographic review of literary and archival materials. Numerous studies of ethnic processes and ethnographic materials of two centuries on the history and culture of the Uilta as a whole can be used to write a generalizing work.

Keywords: Uilta (Oroks, Orochons), historical and ethnographic literature, archival materials, museum collections, ethnography, Sakhalin.

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Yuriy V. Latushko

Nikita L. Svistov

Arina V. Levchenko

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Ethnodifferentiating Elements of the Modern Cultural Landscape of the Bikin River

This article will focus on the most visible and important elements of the cultural landscape of the Bikin River, which since ancient times was the habitat of a small taiga people — the Udege. In August 2020, an expedition was conducted in the village of Krasny Yar, Primorsky Krai and its environs, by the efforts of the North Pacific Anthropology Laboratory of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Anyone who is interested in the ethnography of the Far East, and even at first not a special glance, will pay attention to the role of Bikin in the everyday life of the indigenous population. The space of the mountain-taiga river forms not only physical geometry, but also the symbolic topology of the “local man”. It is also associated with visible markers of the Udege ethnoculture, which carries the features of many other cultures — both close to the Tungus-Manchu and Chinese, but primarily Russian. However, behind the general diffuse features, the originality of local adaptation is clearly visible. The visible markers of the cultural landscape here are the means of overcoming the physical space itself — traditional boats — and the symbolic results of its comprehension — objects of arts and crafts. With regard to the first, it should be said that such forms are preserved on Bikin that are already rarely found in other parts of the Amur River basin. The locals themselves, by the constructive and design features of the boats, easily determine at least the place of manufacture of the boat, and often the master who made it. The same property is true for most of the products of the local artistic craft, which is by no means static, but flexible and subject to the influences of the modern world. The reasons for how and why these elements, while changing, nevertheless, preserve the skeleton of the cultural landscape, we will discuss below.

Keywords: cultural landscape, Bikin River, Udege People, traditional boats, arts and crafts.

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Elena V. Fadeeva

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Transmission of Ethnocultural Traditions in the Family of the Indigenous Peoples of the Lower Amur and Sakhalin: Tradition and Modernity

The family is one of the basic institutions of society, the first step in human socialization. Like any social organism, it develops and changes together with society, responding in its own way to the challenges of the time, responding to social needs and shaping them. A family’s full performance of its functions is an indispensable condition for the preservation of historical continuity, the development of the individual and society, social stability, and progress. During social changes, the family becomes one of the main institutions for the formation of new values ​and norms of behavior. The article uses comparative-historical and comparative-typological methods to examine the transmission of ethnic traditions, mainly among women. It has a great influence on the formation of the internal structure of the family, its etiquette norms, the functioning of the entire ritual cycle, the preservation of elements of material and spiritual culture, the transmission of folk traditions to future generations in the traditional family of the indigenous peoples of the Lower Amur and Sakhalin (Nanaici, Udegeci, Tazi, Ulchi, Nivkhi, Negidalci, Orochi, Oroki (Uilta), Evenki). It also examines the Soviet and post-Soviet transformations of the family. During the Soviet period, due to several objective and subjective reasons (collectivization, consolidation of traditional settlements, the Second World War, the system of boarding schools, etc.), this mechanism was practically lost. Only at the end of the twentieth century, with the growth of national self-awareness among indigenous ethnic groups, the question of the revival of folk traditions began to be raised.

Keywords: family, ethnocultural traditions, transmission, indigenous peoples, division of labor, rituals of the life cycle, spiritual and material world.

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Ekaterina S. Chekunkova

The Struggle of the Ainu People for Indigenous Peoples’ Rights through a Court System

The article examines court cases related to the rights of the indigenous people of Japan — the Ainu, analyzes the role of court proceedings in the development of the Ainu national movement of the late XX century. The topic of the legal status of the Ainu becomes especially relevant since the 1980s—1990s. From that time on, leaders and activists of the movement began to draw attention to the issue of the position of the Ainu from the Japanese and international community. In particular, this is due to several court proceedings, during which important questions are raised about the rights of the indigenous people to preserve their cultural heritage, manage natural resources, restitution of collective property, etc. Their permission and remain valid for the time being. In addition, it was found that the decisions of the judiciary played an important role in the history of the struggle of the small people for their rights. They partly helped bring the Ainu closer to the long-awaited recognition as an indigenous people of Japan, which occurred in 2008. The motives that prompted the Ainu to start legal proceedings, on the one hand, became a consolidating factor for Ainu communities and organizations, and, on the other hand, revealed contradictory opinions within the Ainu community.

Keywords: Ainu, indigenous people, indigenous peoples’ collective rights, Japanese ethnic policy.

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(Sub)Cultures of the Russian Far East: Values, Migration, Adaptation

Tatiana V. Krayushkina

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Rule in the System of Spiritual and Value Orientations (Based on the Material of Russian Folk Songs During the Civil War of Siberia and the Far East)

Based on the songs of the Civil War period, recorded on the territory of Siberia and the Far East in 1918—1971, the author examines power in the system of spiritual values. Folklore acts as a way of transmitting spiritual and value orientations, and the oral creativity of various ethnic groups broadcasts a similar complex. The difference between the complexes of spiritual and value orientations of different peoples lies in the assessment, the level of perception of the designated categories by a specific ethnic group. The folklore genre is also important, since it is it that makes its own requirements for the selection of characteristics that make up each specific element of spiritual and value orientations. The idea of power shows the ways of introducing new ideas that penetrate into the fund of oral folk art through folklorization, and the experience of its interaction with traditional categories. A new genre, influenced by external factors, begins to broadcast a changed understanding of the traditional component. When analyzing song folklore, it was revealed that the power in the songs of the Civil War period shows a clear gradation of ideas about power: the power of the poor and the power of the rich, the first receives a positive assessment, the second — negative. The article describes the ways of implementing ideas about the power of the poor and the rich in folk songs. It is concluded that folklore is becoming not only a way to replenish the folklore fund, but also a means of introducing new ideas into the traditional complex of spiritual and value orientations. There is a change in the system of spiritual and value orientations, the struggle for power becomes significant, a new system of coordinates related to the opposition of power begins to operate: the power of the rich is the power of the poor, embedded in the traditional idea of friends and foes. The texts did not reveal the simultaneous appeal to the power of the poor and the power of the rich, which is regarded as psychological avoidance: it is not the power that fights the power, but the people for or against it, i.e. it is not a conflict between the authorities that is portrayed, but the confrontation between the people and the old government.

Keywords: song folklore, Russian folk songs, Civil war, rule, manipulations, spiritual values, Siberia, the Far East.

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Yulia V. Argudyaeva

Russian Old-Believers-Far Easterners in Manchuria and on the American Continent: Emigration and Adaptation

The article highlights the reasons and features of the emigration of Russian Old Believers from the Far East, the transmission of the cultural heritage of Russians to Manchuria and the American continent in the 1930—1960s. The difficult way of resettlement of the Old Believers’ population is highlighted — at the beginning of the 30s from the territory of the South of the Far East to Manchuria, and already in the 1950s and 60s — from China to Australia and South American countries. The problems of adaptation of Russians to local conditions, their contribution to the preservation and development of Russian culture in host countries are considered. The high adaptability of the Old Believer population to difficult living conditions in new places of life is noted. The features of economy, demographic situation, national traditions in material culture, family life and family rituals are shown. Despite the careful preservation of spiritual traditions and the Russian language, in economic terms, the Old Believers are not cut off from the outside world. They allow the use of modern household and agricultural equipment, although there is a strict ban on the Internet and television. The creation of a family is of great importance — it must be a person of the same religion. This is facilitated by the maintenance of close contacts between various communities of Old Believers. The modern economic and cultural reasons for the further resettlement of Old Believers — from mainly from the countries of South America to various states of the United States and to the Russian Federation are consecrated.

Keywords: Russians, Old Believers, emigration, adaptation, transfer of culture, economy, material culture, everyday life, marriage, family, family rite.

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Elena V. Rudnikova

To the Issue of the Regional Specificities Motivation of Post-Soviet Emigration

The research focuses on the latest wave of Russian emigration. The author focuses on the question of the degree of influence of regional specifics on the motivation for leaving the country. A brief description of 3 waves of emigration in the post-Soviet period is given: 1991—1998, 1998—2008, after 2008, differing in factors and motives of emigrants. Materials are used on New Zealand, one of the most attractive countries for international emigration in the world — Russian and foreign statistics, research findings, press materials and autobiographical stories of post-Soviet migrants in this country, recorded in the period 2010—2011. Several stories were separated into a separate group (according to the criterion of the informants’ previous residence in the Far Eastern Federal District). A significant number of emigrants from the Far Eastern regions of the Russian Federation was noted, comparable to the number of emigrants from other parts of the country. The reference source is an extensive 2010 interview, which was recorded on audio for 115 minutes. The reason for focusing on these materials was the specificity of the informant himself, which is a good illustration of the second wave of post-Soviet resettlement (1998—2008). Key issues of cultural and linguistic adaptation are discussed. The research materials confirm the expert opinion on the presence of strong emigration sentiments among the residents of the Far Eastern region in the period 1998—2008.

Keywords: Post-Soviet emigrants, the Russian Far East, New Zealand, regional features of the latest Russian emigration wave.

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Andrey V. Zagorulko

Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia.

Rural Population of the Post-Soviet Period in Primorsky Region (Research Materials of 2020)

The article is devoted to the modern population of rural areas of Primorsky Region. The Center for Social Anthropology of the Russian State University for the Humanities, carrying out work on the project “New Peasants of Russia: Socioanthropological and Ethnocultural Research of the Life Strategies of Modern Farmers” conducted research in the central and southern regions of the Russian Federation, over three years significant material was accumulated and a wide variety of segments of the modern rural population were studied. The close connection of the rural population, whether they are farmers, peasants or townspeople who decide to settle in the countryside, with a specific locality leads to a variety of practices and ways of adaptation. Each region has its own features, so in 2020 an attempt was made to collect information in the Primorsky Region. The research was carried out in areas confined to the main geographic zones of Primorsky Territory — in Ussuriysky, Spassky, Nadezhdinsky, Oktyabrsky, Mikhailovsky districts (Khanka Plain), Yakovlevsky district (Ussuriysko-Khankaisky macroslope Sikhote-Alin, central part), Lazovsky and Olginsky (Yaponom Sikhote-Alin), Dalnerechensky region (western slope of Sikhote-Alin, central part). The social structure of the agricultural region is just as mosaic, in general, characteristic of the entire post-Soviet space. Those moving out of town can join any of these groups. Many of these groups interviewed have moved from city to village. However, the situation of moving is not a simple linear scheme — I decided to move, bought / received land, produce agricultural products, live. Almost everyone has gone through a difficult path to the current state (which is also conditionally stable). It is difficult to single out “clean” townspeople and “clean” villagers, all merge into some kind of amorphous group, where people have the experience of life in the city and in the countryside. Many grew up, studied in the city, others just studied, most of them are connected with the village through close relatives.

Keywords: Primorsky Region, countryside, economy, lifestyle, farmers, agricultural producers, agricultural holdings.

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Museum Studies

Irina V. Strel’tsova

Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.

Museum Collections as Ethnographic Source for the Researching of Traditional Culture (by the Example of Traditional Female Clothing of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Migrants in Primorye Region)

The article reviews ethnographic collections of the Arsenyev Museum of Far East History, related to traditional clothing of Ukrainian and Byelorussian migrants in Primorye region. This paper discusses the problems of forming and acquisition of the museum collection. The main components of the traditional complexes of the Ukrainian and Belarusian costumes which became widespread in Primorye at the end of the 19th — the first third of the 20th century are investigated. Pursuant to classification underwear, chest, waist, outerwear, belt, hats, shoes are distinguished. Based on cut and decorative design regional and local features of the female costume of Ukrainians and Belarusians are given according to the regions of their exit. The main techniques of making traditional belts of settlers presented in the museum collection are shown. The article analyzes the issues of the existence and transformation of various components of the traditional clothing of migrants from the Ukrainian and Belarusian provinces in the process of adaptation to local climatic and socio-cultural conditions. The degree of preservation and variability of the basic forms of the traditional female costume of Ukrainian and Belarusian settlers on the territory of secondary development is characterized. As the result of the analysis of the collection of traditional clothing it was concluded that ethnographic materials from the collection of the Arsenyev Museum of Far East History demonstrate the original culture of the settlers and are a valuable source for studying the processes of adaptation and transformation of the costume as the part of ethno-cultural tradition of the Ukrainians and Belarusians of Primorye.

Keywords: Primorye region, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, museum collections, traditional costume.

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