Ivan V. Stavrov

Sinology at the Institute of History of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences: to the Fiftieth Anniversary of Research Activity

This article gives an overview of Chinese studies undertaken at the Institute of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology of Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS. The aim of the paper is to analyze the research on China carried out by scientists of the Institute of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS. Research on China at the Institute has undergone notable changes. During the period of formation of this direction of scientific work (1970s — 1980s), the main tasks of research were defined, consisting in a comprehensive study of the history of Manchuria (North-Eastern China, Dongbei). During this period, the first two volumes of the History of North-Eastern China were published, as well as a series of articles, reference books, and monographs. These studies were characterized by ideologically predetermined interpretations, which did not allow the authors to bring in new assessments of the history of Russian-Chinese relations and to raise new research problems for the Soviet historiography. The comprehensive study of the history of North-Eastern China continued to be the leading direction, and even after the collapse of the USSR the authors did not manage to completely abandon the Soviet research models. In the late 2000s, there was a departure from the comprehensive study of Dongbei and a new research topic was formed: the analysis of center-regional relations, regional policy of the PRC, a comparative study of models of center-periphery relations in Russia and China, the fundamental problems of development of Russian-Chinese cross-border relations. The IWAE has established a research base in the field of classical Chinese studies, but it is limited due to both the complexity of training and the low demand for such research on the part of the authorities and the academic community.

Keywords: Chinese studies, sinology, Institute of History FEB RAS, historiography, Chinese history.

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Sergei A. Ivanov

Uliana D. Kokina

China’s Special Economic Zones Abroad and the Role of the State in Their Development

The article focuses on the history of development of special economic zones that the Chinese government in cooperation with domestic businesses began to establish abroad in the mid-2000s. The authors study the reasons for the establishment of this institution, supporting measures for zones and problems of their development. They also summarize the academic discussion on the role of the Chinese government in the promotion of zones. The study shows that the Chinese government’s policy of introducing the institution of overseas zones was a natural continuation of state regulation of foreign economic activities in the PRC. It allowed the state to maintain control over capital outflows and to support companies in their investment activities. The political, administrative and financial support of the Chinese state in the form of intergovernmental agreements with the host country and various subsidies ensures that the overseas zones receive the most favourable treatment in the host country and allows the necessary infrastructure to be built up in a short period of time. The Chinese operator of a zone, in turn, undertakes to assist Chinese residents in implementing their investment projects. This support, however, does not guarantee similar assistance from partner states or the absence of conflicts with the host community. The process of zone accreditation within the Chinese government is not transparent, which makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of government policies. The paper raises the issue that China’s overseas economic zones are viewed mainly through the prism of Chinese actors, which does not allow a full insight into the subjectivity of the host community.

Keywords: China, special economic zones, overseas investment, state.

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Savva V. Sharganov

The Concept of “Path-Dependence”, “Path-Creation” and “Lock-in” in the Context of China’s Monocities Development Policy

This article analyzes the evolutionary concepts of economic theory in relation to the development of single-industry towns. The three concepts, “path-dependence”, “lock-in”, and “path-creation”, are closely related and form the stages of an object’s “life cycle”. The first stage is described by the concept of “path-dependence”. When applied to monotowns, this concept describes the essence of the evolutionary theory of economics. The “path-dependence” indicates that the situation that has developed with a single-industry town at the moment is nothing more than a combination of political and economic decisions that were made earlier and that have influenced or are still affecting the current situation. The second stage begins when a single-industry town, due to its inability to get out of an unfavorable economic situation for it without major losses, is forced to operate in the same format, this state is called “lock-in”. And the third stage is the solution to the problem of “lock-in”, and is called “path-creation”, which implies the process or reaction of a monotown to the “lock-in” or deterioration of development indicators, in the form of industrial expansion, modernization and diversification of economic sectors in accordance with local conditions. The described evolutionary approach, when used in the analysis of single-industry towns, expands and systematizes the factors influencing the final result of the development of the object.

Keywords: evolutionary economics, “path-dependence”, “lock-in”, “path-creation”, China, single-industry town.

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Tatiana A. Dudnik

Implementation of State Enterprise Reform in the North-Eastern Region of China at the Beginning of the 21st Century (Case Study of Liaoning Province)

The article analyzes the results of state-owned enterprises reform in the People’s Republic of China (by the example of Northeast Liaoning Province) at the beginning of the 21st century. State-owned enterprises in Liaoning Province are important to the economy of Northeast China (Dongbei), and the key role is played by companies operating in the heavy industry sector (metallurgy, energy, engineering, etc.). Northeast China became the “cradle” of the country’s industrialization after the establishment of the PRC. Liaoning Province was the largest industrial center of both the country as a whole and the region in particular. With the Chinese government’s transition to a policy of reform and opening up the role of Northeast China in the country’s economy began to gradually decline. In the 1980s and 1990s, the eastern regions of China were prioritized, while Dongbei’s industry degraded. The situation was particularly difficult at public-sector facilities, primarily heavy industry enterprises. After the adoption of the “Strategy for the Revival of the Old Industrial Bases of Northeast China” an intensified transformation of the region’s public sector began. The main measures were aimed at eliminating unprofitable enterprises, improving the efficiency and quality of production, reorganizing the management apparatus, fighting corruption, using modern technology, reducing the debt burden and more. As a result of the reforms, Liaoning’s large state-owned enterprises have achieved better results. However, improving the efficiency of enterprises has social consequences: higher unemployment and lower living standards for part of the population.

Keywords: Northeast China, Liaoning Province, state-owned enterprise reform, regional policy.

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Pax Mongolica

Alexey V. Mikhalev

Russian Trading Post in Zain Shabi: a Stronghold of Empire in the Conditions of Political Cataclysms in Asia in the First Quarter of the XX Century

The article examines the history of formation and abolishment of the Russian trading post at the Mongolian monastery — Zain Shabi. This article is a continuation of a long-term author’s research on Russian settlements in Mongolia. The chronological boundaries of the study are limited to the first quarter of the XX century. The main sources were materials from the State Archives of the Irkutsk Region, as well as memoirs and materials from geographical expeditions. This article is the first attempt to describe the history of the Russian trading post in Mongolia. According to of the results of the study, the author concludes that the Zain Shabi trading post was a politically and economically significant stronghold of the empire due to the status of the Zain Gegen. Officials of the Russian Empire, supporters of Admiral Kolchak, and later Baron Ungern, planned to rely on his spiritual and political influence in the dimensional time. Owning to the reliance on the second most influential monastery in Mongolia, the Russians managed to create a bridgehead that provided resources for the army, which later became a base for refugees and a retreating army. As Chinese state power was decentralised and its outskirts were hit by anomie, a huge economic “grey zone” appeared, as seen from the materials of State Archives of the Irkutsk Region. These changes transformed the border regime that had been created during the imperial era. In 1919, the processes of anomie and criminalisation of economy began. By 1921, these processes reached their peak.

Keywords: trading post, colonization, emigrants, Mongolia, trade, Russian Civil War, host community.

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Pavel N. Dudin

“The Struggle for ‘the Mengjiang Legacy’” Against the Background of the Formation of a New Political Order in East Asia After the End of the Second World War (1945—1947)

In this article, by reconstructing the events of the post-war period, the author attempts to restore the chronology of the steps taken by representatives of local national elites to obtain an independent status for Inner Mongolia. The aim of the work is the need to rethink the studied events from the perspective of the state-building process, which in different regions of Inner Mongolia had a different embodiment. The subject of the study is the process of political confrontation, the parties of which were, on the one hand, the former leaders of Mengjiang or people close to them, on the other hand, the Communist Party of China and its supporters in the region. Both the general outlines of the desired statehood in the form of an independent People’s Republic and the specific administrative measures taken by the forces controlling the various Mongolian territories to restore the former territorial organization are presented. The article shows the structure and composition of the Mongolian lands, which, after the expulsion of the Japanese, again became the object of military confrontation, this time between the Kuomintang and the CCP. Special attention is paid to the status of the former province of Manchukuo — Khingan, which retained its name but underwent major territorial changes, as well as to Hulun-Buir and its place in Inner Mongolia. It is concluded that the Chinese Communist Party had objective prerequisites for dominating this territory, and the reasons for its success in defeating the Kuomintang, which led to the creation of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, are also indicated.

Keywords: Inner Mongolia, Mengjiang, Kuomintang, Chinese Communist Party, civil war, statehood, state-building.

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Alexander D. Gombozhapov

Traditional Institutions of Social Organization among Nomadic Migrants in Modern Mongolia

The article deals with that the nomadic form of self-organization of Mongol nomads is fundamental characteristic for most of villagers. Nowadays, nomads are in the process of deep social changes. These processes are involved by the transformation of nomadic economy in conditions of market and society modernization, which leads, in a result, to social differentiation. The author raises some questions about social organization of nomadic migrants in modern Mongolia. He also concludes that the main form of self-organization has become nomadic community. The revival of this institution of traditional society and its fairly widespread distribution is caused, in addition to labor cooperation, by basic needs for security, protection of property and the economic interests of nomadic migrants. Processes mentioned above, has some peculiarities. One of them is leading nomadic migration to the central areas of Mongolia which are more developed and where the most intensive social cooperation exists. More over the nomadic community fulfills the function of supporting is members based on traditional ideas of mutual assistance and solidarity. Local residents have additional earning opportunities or may hope for help from relatives living in the city or village. Migrant nomads, being cut off from their familiar surroundings and family ties, can only rely on themselves and their household.

Keywords: nomads, migrants, Mongolia, social organization, institution, cattle breeding, nomadic household.

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International Relations in Asia-Pacific Region

Leonid E. Kozlov

Anastasia V. Romashko

The Tongsinsa Missions in Korean-Japanese Relations

The history of Korean-Japanese relations has never been simple and abounded in such negative stories as pirate raids, wars, and colonial dependence. In our article, we provide a brief overview of Tongsinsa, the ad hoc diplomatic missions of the Joseon Kingdom that visited Japan in 1607—1811, and summarize the main scientific works on this topic, published in Korean and English. The specificity of these missions was that they numbered several hundred people and consisted not only of diplomats, but also of cultural professionals. The Tongsinsa missions were the main channel for cultural exchange between Korea and Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries and significantly influenced the formation of Japanese art and literature. There were 12 of these missions, the last of them remained unfinished. There are no special studies of Tongsinsa in Russia, this phenomenon is only mentioned by Russian Koreanists. The study of Tongsinsa has intensified since the 2002 FIFA World Cup jointly hosted by Japan and the Republic of Korea. Despite the current tension between Japan and the Republic of Korea on certain issues, Korean researchers recommend continuing the study of Tongsinsa so that the historical memory of relations with Japan is not one-sided in Korea. In our opinion, the study of Tongsinsa also provides rich empirical material for understanding the phenomenon of “soft power” in a long historical retrospective.

Keywords: Korean-Japanese relations, Tongsinsa mission, Joseon Kingdom, Tokugawa shogunate, history of diplomacy, cultural exchange.

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Vladimir V. Kozhevnikov

Russian-Japanese Relations in the Period of the Pandemic (after the Resignation of S. Abe)

The article analyzes Russian-Japanese relations during the pandemic. 2020 is a special year not only due to the pandemic, but also because the period of the leadership of Japanese policy towards the Russian Federation by Prime Minister S. Abe ended. He met with the president V. Putin (27 times) more than all the leaders of states. He always put the solution of the territorial problem at the forefront. At the same time, Japan complied, albeit at a lesser stage, with the Western sanctions against Russia. The volume of trade between the countries fell to the level of 2016. Ultimately, S. Abe failed to achieve his goal — the return of the South Kuriles. For health reasons, he was forced to resign at the end of summer 2020. Y. Suga, his deputy, took over as prime minister. He immediately demonstrated his determination to resolve the territorial issue on the traditional Japanese platform, that is, to seek the return of the 4th island, only then to conclude a peace treaty. He demonstrated his readiness to maintain allied relations with the United States and was the first foreign leader to visit the new US president. Thus, bilateral Russian-Japanese relations returned to their previous level. At the same time, the new Japanese prime minister does not have the charisma of S. Abe, who managed to maintain “friendly” relations with President V.V. Putin. And it looks like Russian-Japanese relations will remain at the same level.

Keywords: Russian-Japanese relations, President V.V. Putin, Prime Minister S. Abe, new Prime Minister Y. Suga, pandemic, bilateral relations, peace treaty, sanctions, Russian-Japanese economic relations, territorial issue, joint use of the South Kuriles, amendments to the Constitution of Russian Federation.

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Larisa N. Garusova

Karina M. Mavliashina

Ekaterina S. Iurchenko

Taiwanese External Economic Strategy in the Context of Taiwan-US-China Relationships

High level of economic openness and limited domestic market determine high dependency of Taiwanese economy on world economic situation. Under the circumstances efficient successful external economic strategy is critical to island’s future development. Taiwan needs to find new growth points and rethink its development strategy in order to react to current challenges, such as economic slowdown since the 2000s, intensifying competition in sector of Taiwanese specialization, the rise in protectionism and economic instability. The unresolved political status of Taiwan limits available political choices and impedes implementation of adopted decisions. Taiwan-US-China relationship influences Taiwanese external economic policy as US and China are major economic partners of Taiwan and have their own political agenda. Authors describe historical transformation of Taiwanese external economic strategy, discover main objectives of current external economic strategy and analyze the impact of Chinese and American factors on its implementation. The parties involved can influence Taiwanese economic strategy both directly and indirectly, actively pursuing political goals or implementing their own economic strategy.

Keywords: Taiwan, Republic of China, People’s Republic of China, United States, external economic strategy.

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Boris M. Afonin

Russian — Japanese Relations on Modern Stage: Problem and Perspective

This article is timed to the 65th anniversary of the Joint Declaration of the USSR and Japan which was signed in Moscow on October, 1956. The Declaration restored diplomatic relations interrupted by the war, and opened wide opportunities for the development of bilateral relations. Over the past period, they developed in many respects. This article discusses only political, trade and economic and cultural aspects. The political line turned out to be the most difficult, the stumbling block of which is the problem of a peace treaty. Consultations on this problem have been conducted by Moscow and Tokyo with interruptions for several decades, but due to the parties’ opposite positions no results have been reached. With regard to trade and economic cooperation, in general, it can be described positively, especially the period of the 50—70s, when there was a growth in turnover, five year plans and long-term agreements were concluded. However, in subsequent years, due to various reasons, a decline has been observed and only in 2000s a slight recovery was taking place. In 2016s, the Japanese party suggested a new plan for economic cooperation consisting of eight points, but this plan has not yet given notable results. An important role in the development of bilateral relations was played by cultural and public relations. Performances of dramatic artists, musical groups and solo performers were held with great success in Russia and Japan. A great contribution to good neighborliness and mutual understanding between the peoples of Russia and Japan was made by public organizations whose activities was called “people’s diplomacy”. The article end with summarizing the Russian-Japanese relations over the past 65 years since signing the joint declaration.

Keywords: Russia and Japan, problem of peace treaty, territory question, trade-economic and culture cooperation.

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