Ethnocultural Landscapes of the Ussuri Region: From the Time of V.K. Arseniev to Nowadays
Irina V. Streltsova
Ethno-Psychological Aspect in the Works of V.K. Arseniev
The article analyzes the works of the famous traveler and researcher of the Far East Vladimir K. Arseniev from the point of ethnic psychology. The historical and ethnographic essays, reports, travel notes by Arseniev, devoted to the problems of the population of the Far East, are used as the main sources. Based on the data presented in the works of Arseniev, it is shown that the author, focusing on the ethnic heterogeneity of the local population, attached great importance to the psychological characteristics of representatives of numerous nationalities as an essential factor of their ethnic adaptation. The ethnopsychological characteristics of different ethnic groups settled in the territory of the Far Eastern region, which, according to the ecological orientation of ethnopsychology, are closely related to the influence of natural and climatic factors due to the geographical environment of human habitation, are given. The key principles (comparison and matching) and distinctive methods (system description, visual means of representation, scientific predictions) that were used by Arseniev in the course of studying the national psychological traits of the local population are determined. It is concluded that the originality of ethno-cultural attitudes and ethnic stereotypes of behavior, revealed by Arseniev, can be considered as a significant aspect in the context of the adaptive capabilities of various peoples, as well as modern prognostication of trends in interethnic contacts in the perspective of the development of the Far East.
Keywords: Vladimir K. Arseniev, the Far East, ethnopsychology, interethnic contacts, adaptation.
Vladimir V. Podmaskin
Contribution of V.K. Arseniev in Research on Aboriginal Toponymy of Primorye and Amur Region
The article deals with the geographical vocabulary of the natives of Primorye and the Amur region, collected by V.K. Arseniev. The content of individual geographical terms is given, their comparative analysis with indication of distribution areas, examples of toponyms formed from Tungus-Manchu words are given. The researcher gives examples, according to which, folk geographical terminology naturally and actively participated in the formation of toponyms. They helped local residents to develop the territory of nature management, navigate in space, and conduct purposeful economic activities. They preserved archaic words that make it possible to judge the history of the language, historical and cultural ties, beliefs and folk knowledge. The semantic analysis of geographical terms showed the developed composition of the appellative vocabulary. The most numerous is the group of terms that denoted all varieties of geographical objects of the Ussuri taiga. They were used mainly in microtoponyms, they denoted mountainous relief, unevenness, a protruding object of the terrain, various obstacles and are associated with the economic activities of hunters, fishermen, and gatherers of finished products of nature. Collected by V.K. Arseniev, materials on aboriginal place names showed that for the Tungus-Manchus the world is linear, it is not the surface of space that matters, but the route of migration: up the river, down the river, along the path, along the sea coast. They formed an idea about the connection of people with certain parts of the habitable space. The materials testify that the Udege, Orochi, Nanai and Taz from ancient times have well studied the natural conditions of the area and the surrounding territories, had developed skills of spatial orientation.
Keywords: Udege, Orochi, Nanai, Taz, Ainu, geographical terms, toponyms, etymology, Primorye, Amur region.
Oksana O. Zvidennaya
Yuri V. Latushko
The Ethnocultural Landscape of the Bikin River — from the Time of V.K. Arseniev to the Present Day
The article deals with the sacred objects of the landscape of the Bikin river basin in the traditional culture of the Udege: mountains (hills, rocks), caves, trees, as well as places associated with specific people (nominal objects). The study of such objects was laid by the expedition of V.K. Arseniev in 1907—1908. The source base for this study was the reports of V.K. Arseniev, subsequent materials of ethnographers, botanists, zoologists, geomorphologists, representatives of state statistical departments, as well as our own field collections in 2019—2020. In the studies of Russian ethnologists, much attention is paid to the analysis of the mechanism of modeling the historical and mythological perception of sacred landscapes through the sign-symbolic context of culture, expressed in the concept of ethno-cultural projection. Understanding the natural landscape by means of ethno-cultural projections creates a field of cultural communication. On the example of the territorial group of the Udege of the Bikin River, the projective matrix is clearly visible — relief objects (mountains, hills, rocks, caves, etc.), phyto-objects (primarily trees), nominal objects that continue to be symbolically comprehended and constitute the space of the Udege culture. And today several its elements retain their former me aning, even though some of the meanings have been lost or transformed. The most interesting is the evolution of the image of Laobatu god. Modern fishing rituals are sent, but no longer have a link to traditional mythology. This is partly due to the destruction of shamanic culture and modern ethnic processes.
Keywords: Udege, Bikin River, ethnocultural landscape, ethnocultural projections, traditional and modern cults.
Shamanism in the Spiritual Culture of the Peoples of the Far East
Elena V. Rudnikova
«The List by Lipskiy»: to Question of the Nanay Shamanism’s Studies
The article focuses on one of the important aspects of the traditional culture of the indigenous peoples of the Lower Amur basin. It’s the shamanism. Based on expert assessments, it is stated that active field ethnographic studies of Lower Amur shamanism have been completed. The question of possible directions for studying this phenomenon in modern conditions is being discussed. It is proposed to pay attention to the personal biographies of shamans whose life passed in the pre-revolutionary and Soviet period. The very weak knowledge of this topic in Russian historiography is emphasized. As a demonstration of the potential of such a vector of research, only one of many previously unpublished archival documents is involved. The article focuses on the List of the Nanay Shamans of 1936, made by the well-known Far Eastern ethnographer A.N. Lipskiy (1890—1973). Based on this source and the conclusions of some researchers, the issue of the number and activities of shamans in the 1930s. among the Nanay — the largest among the indigenous Lower Amur peoples. The general historical background of this time is characterized. The origin and content of the List of the Nanay Shamans is analyzed. It is emphasized that the information available there — along with the study of family histories, genealogies and collections — makes it possible to continue research into the institute of shamanism among the peoples of this region at present.
Keywords: indigenous peoples of Lower Amur basin, the Lower Amur shamanism, repressed shamans, the Nanay, A.N. Lipskiy.
Andrey V. Zagorulko
Hunting Scenes in the Ritual Practice of Korean Shamanism
The theme of hunting and the realities associated with it are often used in kut, which indicates a significant influence of hunting on folk religions and cults. Scenes imitating hunting in kut coexisted along with hunting ritual activities preserved in mountainous areas, differing from them in details and content. In Korean shamanism, along with family kuts, communal ones are also common — tankut, which are held during village holidays and significant events. The most famous kuts in which hunting scenes are imitated are the Peensinkut on the west coast (prov. Hwanghaedo), the event is dedicated to the wishes of a good catch and good luck at sea in Haeju, Onjin and Yeonpyeongdo, Mangudethaekkut (prov. Hwanghaedo), dedicated to the longevity and luck of the shaman herself and Sonorymkut from Onjin, Pyeongsang and Yong Baek (prov. Hwanghaedo), which is associated with more with agricultural peasant culture. In other regions of Korea, the scenes of hunting imitations could have a different subtext and drama. Hunting scenes in kamlaniyah differ from their own hunting ritual practice, presented in sanyang nori Hwanbensan from D. Toam ocd. Pyeongchang (prov. Gangwondo). This one is connected with real hunting practice — winter hunting on skis.
Keywords: hunting, kamlaniya, kut, sanyan nori, rituals, ceremonies, sacrificial animals, spirits.
Svetlana N. Shapovalova
The Main Mythological Creatures of the Udege Culture in the Ethnographic Works of V.K. Arseniev
The Udege culture is the most important topic of V.K. Arseniev's scientific creativity. The most valuable information collected over the years of research gives an idea of the rich spiritual culture, cosmogony and various mythological creatures in the world representation of this small Far Eastern people. The article attempts to comprehend the cultural parallels between the indigenous peoples of Primorye and Amur with the peoples of neighboring cultures. This publication has the character of a review of the works of oral and visual folk art that appear in the texts of the works of V.K. Arseniev. The author gives examples of folklore texts containing images of zoomorphic creatures. The images of the main zoomorphic characters, the helper spirits (sevekhi) of the shaman, the iron bird Kuai, the monster — the snake Singmu (Sunmu), the dragon Mudel (Manchu. Muduri) and the evil spirit Onku, demonstrate an analogy with the legendary heroes, mythological characters and cosmological ideas of the peoples of Siberia, Asia and the Pacific. Also, the author refers to the style of the Amur ornament, finding in it similar features with local archaeological cultures. The study assumes that by drawing some parallels between the plots of the Udege visual art and oral art, it is possible to reveal the possible semantic meaning of the elements of the national ornament. Particular attention is paid to shaman masks and headdresses. One of the assumptions of their occurrence, methods of artistic design, semantics of masks, as well as some aspects of their functioning are considered.
Keywords: bird Kuai, monster Singmu, spirit Onku, Mudel dragon, mythology of the Udege culture.
Arina V. Levchenko
Zoomorphic Ornament in the Modern Arts and Crafts of the Udege
The subject of this article is the transformations taking place in the zoomorphic ornament of the Bikin group of the Udege. They are considered in the context of some actual processes taking place in an ethnic group. We have made an attempt to give a description of modern ornamental motifs, to identify the changes that have occurred in them, relative to ancient samples, and to give an explanation for these changes. At the beginning of the article, a brief description of the studied ethnic group is given, and the special significance of the taiga fauna in its culture is substantiated. The following is a description of some of the religious cults and mythological representations of the Udege associated with animals. The main part of the article is devoted to the analysis of three ornamental plots: a bear, fish, a tree of life and a deer (as images inextricably linked with each other). In the process of describing the change, the author refers to such a cultural universal as the duality of the worlds of this and the other world, which is visually expressed in the sacred symmetry and opposite direction of the ornamental elements. In modern products, deviations from the symmetrical composition and a tendency to increase the naturalism of the depicted animals are noticeable. This testifies to the replacement of the magical and world-building purpose of the ornament with its new functions. On the other hand, a completely new composition for Udege art was discovered, made in a modern style, while carrying a deeply archaic meaning. The examples discussed in the text were taken from the author's field materials obtained during an ethnographic expedition to the village of. Krasny Yar in the Pozharsky district of Primorsky Krai in the fall of 2020.
Keywords: Udege, arts and crafts, zoomorphic ornament.
Historical Demography and Regional History
Irina Yu. Ponkratova
Lyubov S. Lebedeva
Sergey V. Batarshev
Epidemics and Diseases in the North-East of Russia in Historical Retrospect: Gizhiginsk in the 19th — Early 20th Centuries
The study is devoted to the «medical» history of Gizhiginsk. Documents of the State Archive of the Magadan region and historical descriptions were involved. The materials obtained as a result of archaeological excavations made it possible to determine the multifunctional use of the studied building, including as a paramedic station and pharmacy. The assessment of the impact of natural and climatic conditions on the health of the population is based on historical descriptions and personal observations of the authors. As a result of the study, it was found that in the 19th — early 20th centuries Gizhiginsk, like other settlements of the Far Eastern suburbs, has not been spared epidemics and diseases imported from other regions and/or caused by unsatisfactory quality of life (unfavorable climatic, sanitary conditions, lack of qualified medical care). It was revealed that the city was affected by at least five epidemics: measles (1899—1900, 1926), scarlet fever and mumps (1928), typhus (1928—1929). There were human diseases (scabies, trachoma, rheumatism, rubella, gonorrhea, influenza, tuberculosis, dysentery, scurvy) and animals (deer and dogs). At the boundary of 1899—1900, the measles epidemic caused the death of ~ 30% of the population of Gizhiginsk. Subsequently large victims from epidemics were avoided because the Soviet government authorities took preventive measures. The version about the epidemic that led to the extinction of the population and the termination of the functioning of Gizhiginsk in 1927 has not been confirmed.
Keywords: North of the Russian Far East, Gizhiginsk, historical archeology, archival documents, epidemics, measles, scarlet fever, typhus, mumps, diseases, epizootics.
Ol’ga A. Ustyugova
Fur Trade in the Russian Far East in V.K. Arseniev's Research
In a number of his works, V.K. Arseniev touched upon the development of fur trade in the Russian Far East in the 19th — early 20th centuries. On the basis of cross-checked survey data, as well as personal observations summarized in the diaries, which he kept during his travels and business trips, the researcher considered in detail both the organization of the fur trade, and the ways of selling sable furs in the Ussuri Region. V.K. Arseniev noted that for a long time in trade the barter was used; furs were exchanged for essential goods, food, alcohol, tobacco and luxuries, only in 1910 hunters began to sell sables for cash. The researcher concluded that the Chinese dominated the fur trade in the Ussuri Region: small buyers in the taiga bought furs from the indigenous population and then resold them to large, mostly Chinese, firms in Vladivostok, Nikolsk-Ussuriisk and Khabarovsk that sent them abroad. In his studies, V.K. Arseniev expanded the ideas of contemporaries about the scale of Chinese influence on the economy of the Russian Far East and proposed a number of measures to combat it.
Keywords: Russian Far East, V.K. Arseniev, Chinese, indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East, hunting, fur trade.
Andrey V. Zagorulko
The Role of the Diaspora in the Trans-Border Region (Koreans of Primorsky Region)
The border forms trans-border regions. This is a historical and geographical process, which takes place in different ways on certain sections of the border — on marginal sections, transition zones. In recent years, representatives of public organizations of Russian Koreans in the Far East began to play the role of mediators in solving some international problems related to the DPRK and the Republic of Korea, in many respects such involvement is associated with the formation and history of the Korean diaspora in Russia. The Korean diaspora occupies a special position in the ethnic mosaic of the Far East, primarily due to the history of its formation. The idea of a historical homeland, a necessary factor integrating the diaspora, was reflected in all forms of organization of the Korean diaspora — starting with the first public associations. Even being at a considerable distance from the Far East and having lost some ethnic characteristics, nevertheless, a symbolic connection with Korea remained. The importance of the historical homeland was also manifested in the use of the social capital of the diaspora, although its structure was constantly changing due to the difficult history of the Korean diaspora. The existence of diaspora cross-border ties strengthens regional security by providing extra-political interactions that facilitate information exchange between the two parts of the cross-border region.
Keywords: cross-border region, diaspora, Koreans, public associations, social capital, historical homeland.